mercredi 16 juillet 2014

The Law Code (Old Hittite)


Sara E. Kimball and Jonathan Slocum

This page contains a text in Hittite with a modern English translation. This particular text and its translation are extracted from a lesson in the Early Indo-European Online series, where one may find detailed information about this text (see the Table of Contents page for Hittite Online in EIEOL), and general information about the Hittite language and its speakers' culture.

The Law Code (Old Hittite)

1 tak-ku LÚ-an na-as-ma MUNUS-an su-ul-la-an-na-az ku-is-ki ku-en-zi a-pu-u-un ar-nu-zi Ù 4 SAG.DU pa-a-i LÚ-na-ku MUNUS-na-ku par-na-as-se-e-a su-wa-a-ez-zi
2 tak-ku ARAD-an na-as-ma GEME-an su-ul-la-an-na-az ku-is-ki ku-en-zi a-pu-u-un ar-nu-ziÙ 2 SAG.DU pa-a-i LÚ-na-ku MUNUS-na-ku par-na-as-se-e-a su-wa-a-ez-zi
5 tak-ku DAM.GÀR URUHa-at-ti ku-is-ki ku-en-zi 1 ME MA.NA KÙ.BABBAR pa-a-i par-na-as-se-e-a su-wa-a-ez-zi tak-ku I-NA KUR URULu-ú-i-ya na-as-ma I-NA KUR URUPa-la-a 1 MEMA.NA KÙ.BABBAR pa-a-i a-as-su-se-et-ta sar-ni-ik-zi ma-a-an I-NA KUR URUHa-at-ti nu-za ú-na-at-tal-la-an-pat ar-nu-uz-zi
9 tak-ku LÚ.U₁₉.LU SAG.DU-ZU ku-is-ki hu-u-ni-ik-zi ka-ru-ú 6 GÍN KÙ.BABBAR pi-is-ke-er nu hu-u-ni-in-kan-za 3 GÍN KÙ.BABBAR da-a-i A-NA É.GAL 3 GÍN KÙ.BABBAR da-as-ke-er ki-nu-na LUGAL-us ŠA É.GAL pe-es-si-et nu-za hu-u-ni-in-kan-za-pat 3 GÍN KÙ.BABBAR da-a-i
10 tak-ku LÚ.U₁₉.LU-an ku-is-ki hu-ú-ni-ik-zi ta-an is-tar-ni-ik-zi nu a-pu-u-un sa-a-ak-ta-a-iz-zi pe-e-di-is-si-ma LÚ.U₁₉.LU-an pa-a-i nu É-ri-is-si an-ni-es-ke-ez-zi ku-it-ma-a-na-as la-a-az-zi-at-ta ma-a-na-as la-az-zi-at-ta-ma nu-us-se 6 GÍN KÙ.BABBAR pa-a-i A.ZU-ya ku-us-sa-an a-pa-a-as-pat pa-a-i
28 tak-ku DUMU.MUNUS LÚ-ni ta-ra-an-za ta-ma-i-sa-an pit-te-nu-uz-zi ku-us-sa-an pit-te-nu-uz-zi-ma nu ha-an-te-ez-zi-ya-as LÚ-as ku-it ku-it pe-es-ta ta-as-se sar-ni-ik-zi at-ta-as-sa an-na-as Ú-UL sar-ni-in-kan-zi
tak-ku-wa-an at-ta-as an-na-as-sa ta-me-e-da-ni LÚ-ni pi-an-zi nu at-ta-as an-na-as-sa sar-ni-in-kan-zi
tak-ku at-ta-as-sa an-na-as mi-im-ma-i na-an-si-kan tuh-sa-an-ta
37 tak-ku MUNUS-an ku-is-ki pit-te-nu-uz-zi EGIR-an-da-ma-as-ma-as sar-di-ya-as pa-iz-zi tak-ku 2 LÚMEŠ na-as-ma 3 LÚMEŠ ak-kan-zi sar-ni-ik-zi-il NU.GÁL zi-ik-wa UR.BARRA ki-sa-at
66 tak-ku GU₄.APIN.LÀL tak-ku ANŠE.KU.RA tu-u-ri-ya-u-wa-as tak-ku GU₄ÁB tak-ku ANŠE.MUNUS.AL.LAL ha-a-li-as har-ap-ta tak-ku MÁŠ.GAL e-na-an-za tak-ku UDU.SÍG.MUNUS tak-ku UDU.NITÁ a-sa-u-ni har-ap-ta is-ha-as-si-sa-an ú-e-mi-ya-az-zi na-an-za sa-ku-wa-as-sa-ra-an-pat da-a-i NÍ-ZU-an Ú-UL e-ep-zi
86 tak-ku ŠAH se-e-li-ya na-as-ma A.ŠÀ-ni GIŠKIRI₆-ni pa-iz-zi ta se-e-li-ya-as is-ha-a-as A.ŠÀ-na-as GIŠKIRI₆-as wa-al-ah-zi na-as a-ki na-an is-hi-is-si EGIR-pa pa-a-i tak-ku-an Ú-UL-ma pa-a-i na-as NÍ-ZU-as ki-i-sa
55 tak-ku LÚ EL-LAM MUŠ-an ku-en-zi ta-me-el-la ŠUM-an te-ez-zi 1 MA.NA KÙ.BABBAR pa-a-i tak-ku ARAD-ma a-pa-a-as-pat a-ki


1 If someone kills a man or a woman in a quarrel, he (the killer) produces the body (lit. 'that one') and gives (in recompense) four people (lit. 'heads') -- whether (he kills) a man or a woman -- he shall look to his house for it.
2 If someone kills a male slave or a female slave in a quarrel, he (the killer) produces the body (lit. 'that one') and gives (in recompense) four people (lit. 'heads') -- whether (he kills) a man or a woman -- he shall look to his house for it.
5 If someone kills a Hittite merchant, he shall give one hundred mina of silver. He shall look to his house for it. If (the killing occurs) in the land of Luwiya or in the land of Pala, the shall pay one hundred mina of silver and restore his goods. If (the killing occurs) in the land of Hatti, he shall also produce the merchant himself (for burial).
9 If someone injures a person's head, they used to give 6 shekels of silver: the injured person took three shekels of silver, and they used to take three shekels of silver for the palace. But now, the king has waived the palace share, so that the injured person alone takes three shekels of silver.
10 If someone injures a person and makes him ill, he performs sick maintenance for him. In his place, he provides a person to work his estate while he recovers. When he recovers, (the assailant) will give him six shekels of silver, and he will also pay the doctor's fee himself.
28 If a daughter (is) promised to a man, and another (man) abducts her and steals the bride price, the one who abducts her, gives the first man whatever he paid (as bride-price) and he makes restitution to him. The (woman's) father and mother do not make restitution (to the original prospective son-in-law). If the father and mother give her to another man, then the father and mother do make restitution (to the original prospective son-in-law). If the mother and father refuse (to make restitution), they shall separate her from him (the second man).
37 If someone abducts a woman and a (group of) helper(s) goes after them, if two or three men are killed, there is no restitution: 'You (sg.) have become a wolf.'
66 If a plow ox, a draft horse, if a heifer, (or) a mare wanders into (another owner's) corral; if a tame? he-goat, if a ewe, if a ram strays into (another owner's) fold, and its owner finds it, he shall take it back by right. He (the animal's owner) shall not seize him (the corral or fold's owner) (as) a thief.
86 If a pig goes into a grain-heap, a field, (or) a garden, and the owner of the grain-heap, field, (or) garden strikes it and it dies, he shall give it back to its owner. But if he does not give it (back), he shall become a thief.
55 If a free man kills a snake and speaks another's name (while killing it), he shall pay forty shekels of silver. If he (the offender) is a slave, however, he himself shall die (i.e. 'be executed').

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